Citation Manual

Last update: July 26, 2000. Adopted: July 30, 1998.
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Table of Contents
Introductory Note

I. Format and Style
A. Font
B. Typefaces

Case names
Introductory signals
Explanatory phrases introducing prior or subsequent case history
Book titles
Legislative history
Words and phrases introducing related authority
Emphasis/Foreign words
Everything else
C. Long Quotations
D. Paragraph Structure
E. Alterations in Quotations
F. Omissions
Use of quoted language as a phrase or clause
Use of quoted language as a full sentence
Quotation of material containing paragraph numbering

II. Case Citation Form
A. Full Citation Form
Public domain/medium neutral citations
Parallel citations
Parallel United States Supreme Court citations
B. Short Citation Forms
"Supra," "Infra," and "Hereinafter"
Special short form--Where full form or full short form is in same paragraph
C. General Citation Rules
Order of authorities
Case names--Abbreviations
Case names--Geographical terms
Case names--Business firm designations
Multiple pages, footnotes, sections, and paragraphs
"Cert. denied"
Subsequent history
Court abbreviations
D. Signals
Signals indicating support
Signal suggesting a useful comparison
Signals indicating contradiction
Signal indicating background material
Combining a signal with "e.g.,"
Signals used as verbs
E. Parenthetical Explanations

III. Other North Dakota and Miscellaneous Citation Forms
A. North Dakota Century Code

Text sentences
North Dakota Revised Code
B. Laws of North Dakota
C. North Dakota Administrative Code
D. North Dakota Constitution
E. Court Rules
North Dakota Rules of Appellate Procedure
North Dakota Rules of Civil Procedure
North Dakota Rules of Criminal Procedure
North Dakota Rules of Evidence
North Dakota Rules of Court
Rule on Procedural Rules, Administrative Rules, and Administrative Orders of the North Dakota Supreme Court
North Dakota Rule on Local Court Procedural Rules and Administrative Rules
North Dakota Supreme Court Administrative Rules and Administrative Orders
Local Court Procedural and Administrative Rules
North Dakota Code of Judicial Conduct
Rules of the Judicial Conduct Commission
North Dakota Rules of Professional Conduct
North Dakota Standards for Imposing Lawyer Sanctions
North Dakota Rules for Lawyer Discipline
North Dakota Rules for Continuing Legal Education
Admission to Practice Rules
Rule on Limited Practice of Law by Law Students
F. Statutory, Rule, and Constitutional History
North Dakota Legislative History
Interim Committee Minutes
Miscellaneous Rules Committee Minutes
North Dakota Constitutional Convention History
United States Congressional History
G. Books
"Supra" and "Id."
H. Shorter works in collection
I. Consecutively paginated journals
J. Non-consecutively paginated journals
K. Newspapers
L. Internet Sources

Appendix A: List of Rules Requiring Amendment

Appendix B: Creation of Court Citation Committee

Appendix C: General Opinion Format
A. Font
B. Line spacing
C. Margins
D. Justification
E. Page Numbering
F. Disposition
G. Attorneys' names
H. Authoring justice's name
I. Page headers
J. Paragraph numbering
K. Footnotes
L. Indication of New Justice or Disqualification, Retirement, or Death of Justice

Language when case is heard with 4 and a new Justice comes to the bench subsequent to oral argument
Language when a Justice disqualifies subsequent to oral argument
Language when a Justice resigns, retires or dies subsequent to oral argument