II. Case Citation Form (See Bluebook R. 10)
. . .
A. Full Citation Form


1997 to current: Wilson v. Siffer, 1998 ND 1, 22, 579 N.W.2d 200.
1954 to 1997: Ernst v. Young, 524 N.W.2d 675, 678 (N.D. 1995).
1890 to 1953: Roe v. Doe, 79 N.D. 395, 396, 60 N.W.2d 242, 243 (1953).

Public domain/medium neutral citations: For North Dakota Supreme Court and Court of Appeals opinions issued on or after January 1, 1997, use of the public domain citation is required, in addition to the Northwestern Reporter citation. After the case name, provide the year of the decision and the court abbreviation. For the Supreme Court use "ND" and for the Court of Appeals use "ND App". With public domain cites, do not use periods with the state abbreviation and do not parenthetically insert the state abbreviation or year after the Northwestern Reporter citation. Next provide the sequential number of the case. Supreme Court and Court of Appeals opinions are numbered separately, and both begin with number 1 each January 1. Use a paragraph symbol for the pinpoint citation and insert a space between the paragraph symbol and the paragraph number. Finally, include the parallel cite to the Northwestern Reporter, but do not provide a pin cite to the Northwestern Reporter. Other jurisdictions are also beginning to use public domain/medium neutral citations. Use them where available. (See II.A. Parallel citations).

Roe v. Doe, 1997 ND 231, 23, 567 N.W.2d 235.
Seim v. Reed, 1998 ND App 2, 5, 599 N.W.2d 124.

If the opinion is not yet available in the Northwestern Reporter, do not add a "blank" Northwestern Reporter citation.

improper:Smith v. Jones, 1999 ND 123, 12, ___ N.W.2d ___.
proper:Smith v. Jones, 1999 ND 123, 12.

Parallel citations: (See Bluebook P. 3) In North Dakota state court opinions and briefs submitted to North Dakota state courts only North Dakota cases from 1890 to 1953 require parallel reporter citations. For other jurisdictions, use only the regional/primary reporter the case is reported in. Do use public domain citations for other jurisdictions when available in addition to the regional/primary reporter. When a parallel cite is used, the parenthetical state abbreviation is unnecessary because it is in the reporter's name.

Roe v. Doe, 79 N.D. 395, 396, 57 N.W.2d 242, 243 (1953).
Thomas v. Reed, 628 S.E.2d 912 (Va. 1995).
but not:
Thomas v. Reed, 122 Va. 678, 628 S.E.2d 912 (1995).
Wilson v. Sykes, 1999 SD 123, 9, 599 N.W.2d. 712.

Parallel United States Supreme Court citations: If a United States Supreme Court case is in the United States (U.S.) reporter, cite only to it. Parallel citations to the "S. Ct." reporter and to the "L. Ed." reporter are not necessary. (West will add them in its publications). If the case is not yet available in the "U.S." reporter, cite only to the "S. Ct" reporter.

proper:Smith v. Jones, 530 U.S. 125, 145 (1999).
improper:Smith v. Jones, 117 S. Ct. 1231, 1235, U.S. (1999).
proper:Smith v. Jones, 117 S. Ct. 1231, 1235 (1999).