II. Case Citation Form
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C. General Citation Rules

Order of authorities: (See Bluebook R. 1.4) When citing multiple North Dakota cases, connect with semicolons in reverse chronological order. When citing multiple cases from several jurisdictions, first cite United States Supreme Court cases in reverse chronological order, then other federal appellate cases in reverse chronological order without regard to circuit, then federal district court cases in reverse chronological order without regard to district, and then state cases in alphabetical order by state. If one or more cases are of greater importance, they may be cited first. Ignore prior and subsequent history for the purpose of deciding the proper order of authorities.

Roe v. Doe, 524 N.W.2d 675, 678 (N.D. 1995); Steele v. Dawson, 231 N.W.2d 123, 140 (N.D. 1963).

See Roe v. Wade, 542 U.S. 123, 145 (1999); Doe v. Dade, 124 F.3d 123, 145 (1st Cir. 1998); Coe v. Blade, 12 F.2d 321, 333 (9th Cir. 1946); Soe v. Cade, 666 F. Supp. 1234, 1239 (M.D. Tenn. 1980); Moe v. Hade, 915 P.2d 1200, 1207 (Ala. 1997); Roe v. Doe, 524 N.W.2d 675, 678 (N.D. 1995).

Case names--Abbreviations: Case names may be abbreviated according to the Bluebook. Always abbreviate any word listed in Bluebook T. 6, unless it is the first word of a party's name. Abbreviate states, countries, and other geographical units as indicated in Bluebook T. 10, unless the geographical unit is a named party. It is permissible to abbreviate other words of eight letters or more if substantial space is saved and the result is unambiguous. For example, North Dakota Workers Compensation Bureau may be abbreviated as North Dakota Workers Comp. Bureau.

Case names--Geographical terms: (See Bluebook R. 10.2.1(f)) Omit "State of," "Commonwealth of," and "People of," except when citing decisions of the courts of that state, in which case only "State," "Commonwealth," or "People" should be retained.

Omit "City of" and like expressions unless the expression begins a party name.

Omit all prepositional phrases of location not following "City," or like expressions, unless the omission would leave only one word in the name of a party.

Include designations of national or larger geographical areas, but omit "of America" after "United States":

           Wilson v. First W. Bank of Fargo, 234 N.W.2d 123 (N.D. 1965).
would be:
          Wilson v. First W. Bank, 234 N.W.2d 123 (N.D. 1965).

Retain all geographical designations not introduced by a preposition:

Willey v. North Dakota Workers Comp. Bureau, 520 N.W.2d 123 (N.D. 1990).

Case names--Business firm designations: Omit "Inc.," "Ltd.," "N.A.," "F.S.B.," and similar terms if the name also contains words such as "Ass'n," "Bros.," "Co.," and "R.R.," clearly indicating that the party is a business firm.

Footnotes: When citing a footnote, use "n." and the footnote number. There is no space between the "n." and the footnote number.

If citing to all material contained in a footnote, cite to the page on which the footnote begins. If citing specific material in a footnote which covers more than one page, cite the page the material is on. When a public domain/medium neutral cite is used, provide both the paragraph number the footnote number is in and the footnote number.

Donte v. Jones, 345 N.W.2d 124, 132 n.2 (N.D. 1981).
Wilson v. Smith, 1999 ND 12, 13 n.2, 599 N.W.2d 600.

Multiple pages, footnotes, sections, and paragraphs: When citing material that spans more than one page, give the inclusive page numbers, separated by a hyphen or dash. Always retain at least the last two digits, but drop repetitious digits.

Proper: 789-90.   Improper: 789-790.
Proper: 789-801. Improper: 1012-3.
Proper: 1012-13.

When citing multiple footnotes, sections, or paragraphs, use "nn.", "§§", or "".

Johnson v. Johnson, 342 N.W.2d 123, 124 nn.2-4.
State v. Erhard, 1999 ND 125, 5-7, 597 N.W.2d 123.
Id. at 7, 9, 11-12.

"Cert. denied": Only note "cert. denied" if certiorari was denied within the past two years or is particularly important.

Subsequent history: (See Bluebook T. 9) Always provide subsequent history when a case is cited in full. The year is dropped from the first citation if the year of the subsequent history is the same.

Wilson v. Reynolds, 49 F.3d 1347 (9th Cir.), cert. denied, 518 U.S. 924 (1998).
Poe v. Ellis, 90 F.3d 1 (8th Cir. 1997), cert. denied, 523 U.S. 230 (1998).

Court abbreviations: When citing cases from other states, use the correct court abbreviation and provide any other necessary information listed in Bluebook T. 1.

Ordinals: When citing a circuit court opinion, the ordinals "st", "d", or "th" should not be superscripted. (If your computer does this automatically and you are using WordPerfect, you need to turn off "QuickOrdinals." Go to "Tools," "QuickCorrect," "Options," and make sure the "QuickOrdinals" box is not x'd out. If it is, click it to remove the x. You will need to manually change any previously typed ordinals by going into your reveal codes (Alt, F3) and deleting any "superscript" codes.)