RULE 11.6 MEDIUM-NEUTRAL CASE CITATIONS

Effective Date: 8/1/1998

(a) Citations Before January 1, 1997. The initial citation of any published opinion of the Supreme Court released before January 1, 1997, contained in a brief, memorandum, or other document filed with any trial or appellate court and a citation in the table of cases in a brief must include a reference to the volume and page number of the North Western Reporter in which the opinion is published. Subsequent citations within a brief, memorandum, or other document must include the page number and sufficient reference to identify the initial citation.

(b) Citations After January 1, 1997. When available, initial citations must include the volume and initial page number of the North Western Reporter in which the opinion is published. The initial citation of any published opinion of the Supreme Court or Court of Appeals released on or after January 1, 1997, contained in a brief, memorandum, or other document filed with any trial or appellate court and the citation in the table of cases in a brief must also include a reference to the calendar year in which the decision was filed, followed by the court designation of "ND" for the Supreme Court or "ND App" for the Court of Appeals followed by a sequential number assigned by the Clerk of the Supreme Court. A paragraph citation should be placed immediately following the sequential number assigned to the case. Subsequent citations within the brief, memorandum or other document must include the paragraph number and sufficient references to identify the initial citation.

Rule 11.6 was adopted, effective March 5, 1997, subject to comment, to implement the use of medium-neutral case citations in North Dakota.

For Illustrative Purposes.

Cite to a North Dakota Supreme Court Opinion published prior to January 1, 1997 as follows:

Smith v. Jones, 500 N.W.2d 600, 601 (N.D. 1994).
Smith, 500 N.W.2d at 601.
Id. at 602.
Black v. Black, 79 N.D. 100, 101, 60 N.W.2d 500, 501 (1953).
Black, 79 N.D. at 101, 60 N.W.2d at 501.
Id. at 103, 60 N.W.2d at 502.

Cite to a North Dakota Supreme Court Opinion published after January 1, 1997, as follows:

Before publication in North Western Reporter:
Smith v. Jones, 1997 ND 15.
After publication in North Western Reporter:
Smith v. Jones, 1997 ND 15, 600 N.W.2d 900.

Spot cite to a North Dakota Supreme Court Opinion published after January 1, 1997, as follows:

Before publication in North Western Reporter:
Smith v. Jones, 1997 ND 15, ¶ 21.
Smith, 1997 ND 15, ¶¶ 21-25.
Id. at ¶ 15.
After publication in North Western Reporter:
Smith v. Jones, 1997 ND 15, ¶ 21, 600 N.W.2d 900.
Smith, 1997 ND 15, ¶¶ 21-25, 600 N.W.2d 900.
Id. at ?¶ 15.

The use of the ¶ symbol in spot citations is necessary to distinguish paragraph numbers from page numbers. "N.D." (with periods) refers to the "North Dakota Reports," which were published between 1890 and 1953. "ND" (without periods) refers to the database containing the electronic version of opinions filed after January 1, 1997. North Dakota Court of Appeals cases filed after January 1, 1997 are to be cited in the same manner as North Dakota Court Supreme Court cases using the database identifier "ND App" (without periods).

Effective Date Obsolete Date
08/01/1998 View
03/05/1997 08/01/1998 View